小豌豆

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手写JS

作为前端开发,JS是重中之重,趁着这个时间总结下32个手写JS问题,这些都是高频面试题,希望对你能有所帮助。

Object.is

Object.is解决的主要是这两个问题:

+0 === -0  // true
NaN === NaN // false
const is= (x, y) => {
  if (x === y) {
    // +0和-0应该不相等
    return x !== 0 || y !== 0 || 1/x === 1/y;
  } else {
    return x !== x && y !== y;
  }
}

Object.assign

Object.assign()方法用于将所有可枚举属性的值从一个或多个源对象复制到目标对象。它将返回目标对象(请注意这个操作是浅拷贝)

Object.defineProperty(Object, 'assign', {
  value: function(target, ...args) {
    if (target == null) {
      return new TypeError('Cannot convert undefined or null to object');
    }

    // 目标对象需要统一是引用数据类型,若不是会自动转换
    const to = Object(target);

    for (let i = 0; i < args.length; i++) {
      // 每一个源对象
      const nextSource = args[i];
      if (nextSource !== null) {
        // 使用for...in和hasOwnProperty双重判断,确保只拿到本身的属性、方法(不包含继承的)
        for (const nextKey in nextSource) {
          if (Object.prototype.hasOwnProperty.call(nextSource, nextKey)) {
            to[nextKey] = nextSource[nextKey];
          }
        }
      }
    }
    return to;
  },
  // 不可枚举
  enumerable: false,
  writable: true,
  configurable: true,
})

深拷贝

递归的完整版本(考虑到了Symbol属性):

const cloneDeep1 = (target, hash = new WeakMap()) => {
  // 对于传入参数处理
  if (typeof target !== 'object' || target === null) {
    return target;
  }
  // 哈希表中存在直接返回
  if (hash.has(target)) return hash.get(target);

  const cloneTarget = Array.isArray(target) ? [] : {};
  hash.set(target, cloneTarget);

  // 针对Symbol属性
  const symKeys = Object.getOwnPropertySymbols(target);
  if (symKeys.length) {
    symKeys.forEach(symKey => {
      if (typeof target[symKey] === 'object' && target[symKey] !== null) {
        cloneTarget[symKey] = cloneDeep1(target[symKey]);
      } else {
        cloneTarget[symKey] = target[symKey];
      }
    })
  }

  for (const i in target) {
    if (Object.prototype.hasOwnProperty.call(target, i)) {
      cloneTarget[i] =
        typeof target[i] === 'object' && target[i] !== null
        ? cloneDeep1(target[i], hash)
        : target[i];
    }
  }
  return cloneTarget;
}

Promise

const PENDING = 'PENDING';      // 进行中
const FULFILLED = 'FULFILLED';  // 已成功
const REJECTED = 'REJECTED';    // 已失败

class Promise {
  constructor(exector) {
    // 初始化状态
    this.status = PENDING;
    // 将成功、失败结果放在this上,便于then、catch访问
    this.value = undefined;
    this.reason = undefined;
    // 成功态回调函数队列
    this.onFulfilledCallbacks = [];
    // 失败态回调函数队列
    this.onRejectedCallbacks = [];

    const resolve = value => {
      // 只有进行中状态才能更改状态
      if (this.status === PENDING) {
        this.status = FULFILLED;
        this.value = value;
        // 成功态函数依次执行
        this.onFulfilledCallbacks.forEach(fn => fn(this.value));
      }
    }
    const reject = reason => {
      // 只有进行中状态才能更改状态
      if (this.status === PENDING) {
        this.status = REJECTED;
        this.reason = reason;
        // 失败态函数依次执行
        this.onRejectedCallbacks.forEach(fn => fn(this.reason))
      }
    }
    try {
      // 立即执行executor
      // 把内部的resolve和reject传入executor,用户可调用resolve和reject
      exector(resolve, reject);
    } catch(e) {
      // executor执行出错,将错误内容reject抛出去
      reject(e);
    }
  }
  then(onFulfilled, onRejected) {
    onFulfilled = typeof onFulfilled === 'function' ? onFulfilled : value => value;
    onRejected = typeof onRejected === 'function'? onRejected:
      reason => { throw new Error(reason instanceof Error ? reason.message:reason) }
    // 保存this
    const self = this;
    return new Promise((resolve, reject) => {
      if (self.status === PENDING) {
        self.onFulfilledCallbacks.push(() => {
          // try捕获错误
          try {
            // 模拟微任务
            setTimeout(() => {
              const result = onFulfilled(self.value);
              // 分两种情况:
              // 1. 回调函数返回值是Promise,执行then操作
              // 2. 如果不是Promise,调用新Promise的resolve函数
              result instanceof Promise ? result.then(resolve, reject) : resolve(result);
            })
          } catch(e) {
            reject(e);
          }
        });
        self.onRejectedCallbacks.push(() => {
          // 以下同理
          try {
            setTimeout(() => {
              const result = onRejected(self.reason);
              // 不同点:此时是reject
              result instanceof Promise ? result.then(resolve, reject) : reject(result);
            })
          } catch(e) {
            reject(e);
          }
        })
      } else if (self.status === FULFILLED) {
        try {
          setTimeout(() => {
            const result = onFulfilled(self.value);
            result instanceof Promise ? result.then(resolve, reject) : resolve(result);
          });
        } catch(e) {
          reject(e);
        }
      } else if (self.status === REJECTED){
        try {
          setTimeout(() => {
            const result = onRejected(self.reason);
            result instanceof Promise ? result.then(resolve, reject) : reject(result);
          })
        } catch(e) {
          reject(e);
        }
      }
    });
  }
  catch(onRejected) {
    return this.then(null, onRejected);
  }
  static resolve(value) {
    if (value instanceof Promise) {
      // 如果是Promise实例,直接返回
      return value;
    } else {
      // 如果不是Promise实例,返回一个新的Promise对象,状态为FULFILLED
      return new Promise((resolve, reject) => resolve(value));
    }
  }
  static reject(reason) {
    return new Promise((resolve, reject) => {
      reject(reason);
    })
  }
}

Promise.all

Promise.all是支持链式调用的,本质上就是返回了一个Promise实例,通过resolvereject来改变实例状态。

Promise.myAll = function(promiseArr) {
  return new Promise((resolve, reject) => {
    const ans = [];
    let index = 0;
    for (let i = 0; i < promiseArr.length; i++) {
      promiseArr[i]
      .then(res => {
        ans[i] = res;
        index++;
        if (index === promiseArr.length) {
          resolve(ans);
        }
      })
      .catch(err => reject(err));
    }
  })
}

Promise.race

Promise.race = function(promiseArr) {
  return new Promise((resolve, reject) => {
    promiseArr.forEach(p => {
      // 如果不是Promise实例需要转化为Promise实例
      Promise.resolve(p).then(
        val => resolve(val),
        err => reject(err),
      )
    })
  })
}

Promise并行限制

就是实现有并行限制的Promise调度器问题

class Scheduler {
  constructor() {
    this.queue = [];
    this.maxCount = 2;
    this.runCounts = 0;
  }
  add(promiseCreator) {
    this.queue.push(promiseCreator);
  }
  taskStart() {
    for (let i = 0; i < this.maxCount; i++) {
      this.request();
    }
  }
  request() {
    if (!this.queue || !this.queue.length || this.runCounts >= this.maxCount) {
      return;
    }
    this.runCounts++;

    this.queue.shift()().then(() => {
      this.runCounts--;
      this.request();
    });
  }
}

const timeout = time => new Promise(resolve => {
  setTimeout(resolve, time);
})

const scheduler = new Scheduler();

const addTask = (time,order) => {
  scheduler.add(() => timeout(time).then(()=>console.log(order)))
}


addTask(1000, '1');
addTask(500, '2');
addTask(300, '3');
addTask(400, '4');
scheduler.taskStart()
// 2
// 3
// 1
// 4

JSONP

script标签不遵循同源协议,可以用来进行跨域请求,优点就是兼容性好但仅限于GET请求

const jsonp = ({ url, params, callbackName }) => {
  const generateUrl = () => {
    let dataSrc = '';
    for (let key in params) {
      if (Object.prototype.hasOwnProperty.call(params, key)) {
        dataSrc += `${key}=${params[key]}&`;
      }
    }
    dataSrc += `callback=${callbackName}`;
    return `${url}?${dataSrc}`;
  }
  return new Promise((resolve, reject) => {
    const scriptEle = document.createElement('script');
    scriptEle.src = generateUrl();
    document.body.appendChild(scriptEle);
    window[callbackName] = data => {
      resolve(data);
      document.removeChild(scriptEle);
    }
  })
}

AJAX

const getJSON = function(url) {
  return new Promise((resolve, reject) => {
    const xhr = XMLHttpRequest ? new XMLHttpRequest() : new ActiveXObject('Mscrosoft.XMLHttp');
    xhr.open('GET', url, false);
    xhr.setRequestHeader('Accept', 'application/json');
    xhr.onreadystatechange = function() {
      if (xhr.readyState !== 4) return;
      if (xhr.status === 200 || xhr.status === 304) {
        resolve(xhr.responseText);
      } else {
        reject(new Error(xhr.responseText));
      }
    }
    xhr.send();
  })
}

event模块

实现node中回调函数的机制,node中回调函数其实是内部使用了观察者模式。

观察者模式:定义了对象间一种一对多的依赖关系,当目标对象Subject发生改变时,所有依赖它的对象Observer都会得到通知。

function EventEmitter() {
  this.events = new Map();
}

// 需要实现的一些方法:
// addListener、removeListener、once、removeAllListeners、emit

// 模拟实现addlistener方法
const wrapCallback = (fn, once = false) => ({ callback: fn, once });
EventEmitter.prototype.addListener = function(type, fn, once = false) {
  const hanlder = this.events.get(type);
  if (!hanlder) {
    // 没有type绑定事件
    this.events.set(type, wrapCallback(fn, once));
  } else if (hanlder && typeof hanlder.callback === 'function') {
    // 目前type事件只有一个回调
    this.events.set(type, [hanlder, wrapCallback(fn, once)]);
  } else {
    // 目前type事件数>=2
    hanlder.push(wrapCallback(fn, once));
  }
}
// 模拟实现removeListener
EventEmitter.prototype.removeListener = function(type, listener) {
  const hanlder = this.events.get(type);
  if (!hanlder) return;
  if (!Array.isArray(this.events)) {
    if (hanlder.callback === listener.callback) this.events.delete(type);
    else return;
  }
  for (let i = 0; i < hanlder.length; i++) {
    const item = hanlder[i];
    if (item.callback === listener.callback) {
      hanlder.splice(i, 1);
      i--;
      if (hanlder.length === 1) {
        this.events.set(type, hanlder[0]);
      }
    }
  }
}
// 模拟实现once方法
EventEmitter.prototype.once = function(type, listener) {
  this.addListener(type, listener, true);
}
// 模拟实现emit方法
EventEmitter.prototype.emit = function(type, ...args) {
  const hanlder = this.events.get(type);
  if (!hanlder) return;
  if (Array.isArray(hanlder)) {
    hanlder.forEach(item => {
      item.callback.apply(this, args);
      if (item.once) {
        this.removeListener(type, item);
      }
    })
  } else {
    hanlder.callback.apply(this, args);
    if (hanlder.once) {
      this.events.delete(type);
    }
  }
  return true;
}
EventEmitter.prototype.removeAllListeners = function(type) {
  const hanlder = this.events.get(type);
  if (!hanlder) return;
  this.events.delete(type);
}

图片懒加载

可以给img标签统一自定义属性data-src='default.png',当检测到图片出现在窗口之后再补充src属性,此时才会进行图片资源加载。

function lazyload() {
  const imgs = document.getElementsByTagName('img');
  const len = imgs.length;
  // 视口的高度
  const viewHeight = document.documentElement.clientHeight;
  // 滚动条高度
  const scrollHeight = document.documentElement.scrollTop || document.body.scrollTop;
  for (let i = 0; i < len; i++) {
    const offsetHeight = imgs[i].offsetTop;
    if (offsetHeight < viewHeight + scrollHeight) {
      const src = imgs[i].dataset.src;
      imgs[i].src = src;
    }
  }
}

// 可以使用节流优化一下
window.addEventListener('scroll', lazyload);

滚动加载

原理就是监听页面滚动事件,分析clientHeight、scrollTop、scrollHeight三者的属性关系。

window.addEventListener('scroll', function() {
  const clientHeight = document.documentElement.clientHeight;
  const scrollTop = document.documentElement.scrollTop;
  const scrollHeight = document.documentElement.scrollHeight;
  if (clientHeight + scrollTop >= scrollHeight) {
    // 检测到滚动至页面底部,进行后续操作
    // ...
  }
}, false);

渲染几万条数据不卡住页面

渲染大数据时,合理使用createDocumentFragmentrequestAnimationFrame,将操作切分为一小段一小段执行。

setTimeout(() => {
  // 插入十万条数据
  const total = 100000;
  // 一次插入的数据
  const once = 20;
  // 插入数据需要的次数
  const loopCount = Math.ceil(total / once);
  let countOfRender = 0;
  const ul = document.querySelector('ul');
  // 添加数据的方法
  function add() {
    const fragment = document.createDocumentFragment();
    for(let i = 0; i < once; i++) {
      const li = document.createElement('li');
      li.innerText = Math.floor(Math.random() * total);
      fragment.appendChild(li);
    }
    ul.appendChild(fragment);
    countOfRender += 1;
    loop();
  }
  function loop() {
    if(countOfRender < loopCount) {
      window.requestAnimationFrame(add);
    }
  }
  loop();
}, 0)

打印出当前网页使用了多少种HTML元素

const fn = () => {
  return [...new Set([...document.querySelectorAll('*')].map(el => el.tagName))].length;
}

值得注意的是:DOM操作返回的是类数组,需要转换为数组之后才可以调用数组的方法。

将VirtualDom转化为真实DOM结构

这是当前SPA应用的核心概念之一

// vnode结构:
// {
//   tag,
//   attrs,
//   children,
// }

//Virtual DOM => DOM
function render(vnode, container) {
  container.appendChild(_render(vnode));
}
function _render(vnode) {
  // 如果是数字类型转化为字符串
  if (typeof vnode === 'number') {
    vnode = String(vnode);
  }
  // 字符串类型直接就是文本节点
  if (typeof vnode === 'string') {
    return document.createTextNode(vnode);
  }
  // 普通DOM
  const dom = document.createElement(vnode.tag);
  if (vnode.attrs) {
    // 遍历属性
    Object.keys(vnode.attrs).forEach(key => {
      const value = vnode.attrs[key];
      dom.setAttribute(key, value);
    })
  }
  // 子数组进行递归操作
  vnode.children.forEach(child => render(child, dom));
  return dom;
}

字符串解析问题

var a = {
    b: 123,
    c: '456',
    e: '789',
}
var str=`a{a.b}aa{a.c}aa {a.d}aaaa`;
// => 'a123aa456aa {a.d}aaaa'

实现函数使得将str字符串中的{}内的变量替换,如果属性不存在保持原样(比如{a.d}

类似于模版字符串,但有一点出入,实际上原理大差不差

const fn1 = (str, obj) => {
    let res = '';
    // 标志位,标志前面是否有{
    let flag = false;
    let start;
    for (let i = 0; i < str.length; i++) {
        if (str[i] === '{') {
            flag = true;
            start = i + 1;
            continue;
        }
        if (!flag) res += str[i];
        else {
            if (str[i] === '}') {
                flag = false;
                res += match(str.slice(start, i), obj);
            }
        }
    }
    return res;
}
// 对象匹配操作
const match = (str, obj) => {
    const keys = str.split('.').slice(1);
    let index = 0;
    let o = obj;
    while (index < keys.length) {
        const key = keys[index];
        if (!o[key]) {
            return `{${str}}`;
        } else {
            o = o[key];
        }
        index++;
    }
    return o;
}
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